Texte - Historically, the Mediterranean region has always been a melting pot marked by the mobility of peoples. Migration can be internal with a rural exodus that continues while socio-economic perspectives in cities seem to be less favourable. It can also be international with people seeking better living conditions abroad. However, there are also displaced people that are forced to migrate due to security problems. The amplification of distress mobility in the region raises many humanitarian and political issues, positioning debates on the management of emergency and short-term management of these complex dynamics. Root causes of migration should be addressed simultaneously in order to highlight possible solutions from the perspective of agricultural and rural development and food security.